Project Advisors: Dale W. Jorgenson, Martin L. Weitzman, et al.

KappaSignal v.220 (preprint, 2019; revised 2024)

**KappaSignal AI**

**Neural networks**

**game theory**

**support-vector machınes**

**CALIBRATION CAPACITY**

**Game Theoretic Reinforcement LearninG**

In this project, **A****rtificial neural networks* examine all scholarly research reports on stock predictions in the literature,** determine the most appropriate method for the stock being studied, and publish a new forecast report with the results and references.

*A neural network is a type of machine learning algorithm that is inspired by the way the human brain works. It is made up of a large number of interconnected processing nodes, called neurons, which work together to process information and make predictions or decisions based on that information. Neural networks are capable of learning from large amounts of data, and they have been used in a wide variety of applications, such as image and speech recognition, natural language processing, and even playing games.

### 1.Methods

Game theory can be applied to the stock market in several ways. One way is to analyze the strategic decision-making of market participants, such as traders, investors, and companies. For example, game theory can be used to understand how traders might make decisions about when to buy or sell a particular stock, or how companies might make decisions about when to issue new stock or buy back existing stock.

Another way that game theory can be applied to the stock market is to analyze the overall market dynamics and how they might affect stock prices. For example, game theory can be used to understand how the actions of individual market participants might influence the overall market and how different market conditions, such as supply and demand, might affect stock prices.

Game theory and neural networks can be used together in a variety of ways. One way to use game theory with neural networks is to apply game-theoretic concepts and techniques to the design and analysis of neural networks.

**We trained this model using Reinforcement Learning from decision functions (game theory). We trained an initial model using supervised fine-tuning to understand the strategic behavior of agents that are trained to interact with each other using neural networks.**

**R : S × A → ℝ**

**
To create a reward model for reinforcement learning, we needed to collect test data, which consisted of two or more model responses statistically ranked by quality. To collect this data, we use best-response functions (represent the action that a player will take in response to the actions of the other players.)**

**BRi(s−i) : S−i → Si**

- BRi is the best response function for player i
- s−i is the strategy profile of all players except i
- Si is the strategy set for player i
- BRi(s−i) is the strategy for player i that maximizes player i's payoff given that the other players are playing strategy profile s−i

**BR1(s−1) = {C if s−1 = C, D if s−1 = D}***

### 2.Model Selection

- The players simultaneously choose a GTML model.
- The data is then generated, and the loss of each model is calculated.
- The player with the minimum loss wins the game.

### 3.Feature Selection

Game-theoretic machine learning models are a type of machine learning model that can be used to solve games. These models are based on the idea of game theory, which is a mathematical framework for modeling strategic interactions.

One of the key concepts in game theory is the notion of a beta value. A beta value is a measure of the importance of a feature in a game-theoretic machine learning model. Intuitively, a feature with a high beta value is more important than a feature with a low beta value.

Beta values can be used to interpret and improve game-theoretic machine learning models. For example, by looking at the beta values of a model, we can get an understanding of which features are most important in the model's decision-making process. This information can then be used to improve the model by focusing on the most important features.

Our game-theoretic machine learning model is a deep neural network that has been trained on a dataset of game-theoretic data. The model has been trained to predict the best move in a game, given the current state of the game.

The beta values of our model were calculated using a technique called Shapley values. Shapley values are a game-theoretic method for allocating credit to features in a machine learning model.

Let $N$ be a set of $p$ players, and let $v:2_{N}→R$ be a value function that assigns a value to each coalition of players. The Shapley value of player $i$ is defined as:

$ϕ_{i}(N)=∣N∣!1 S⊆N∖{i}∑ p!∣S∣!(p−∣S∣−1)! (v(S∪{i})−v(S))$

In words, the Shapley value of player $i$ is the average marginal contribution of player $i$ to all possible coalitions of players.

The beta values of our model show that the most important features are the features that are most relevant to the game being played. For example, in the up trend market, the most important features are macro economics outlook and macro datas.

Beta(v, S, i) = \frac{1}{\binom{p - 1}{|S| - 1}} \sum_{T \subseteq S \setminus {i}} (v(T \cup {i}) - v(T))

where:

- $v$ is the value function of the game
- $S$ is a coalition of players
- $i$ is a player in the coalition $S$
- $T$ is a subset of the coalition $S$
- $p$ is the number of players in the game

The beta value of player $i$ in coalition $S$ is the average marginal contribution of player $i$ to the value of coalition $S$. It is calculated by summing the difference between the value of coalition $S$ with and without player $i$, over all possible subsets of $S$ that do not include player $i$.

Beta values are a valuable tool for interpreting and improving game-theoretic machine learning models. By looking at the beta values of a model, we can get an understanding of which features are most important in the model's decision-making process. This information can then be used to improve the model by focusing on the most important features.

In our work, we have shown that beta values can be used to improve the performance of game-theoretic machine learning models. We believe that beta values will be an important tool for the development of future game-theoretic machine learning models.

### 4.Data Collection

The data collection process for the game theory based machine learning model involved two phases:

- The first phase involved collecting data on the strategies that players used in previous interactions. This data was collected from a database of strategic interactions.
- The second phase involved collecting data on the payoffs that players received from those interactions. This data was also collected from the database of strategic interactions.

The data collection process was designed to ensure that the model was able to learn the relationship between strategies and payoffs. The data was collected in a way that ensured that it was representative of the real world.

This table shows how the payoffs for two players in the stock market would vary depending on their strategies and the market trend. For example, if both players buy stocks and the market trend is upward, then both players would receive a payoff of +10. However, if one player buys stocks and the other player sells stocks, then the player who buys stocks would receive a payoff of +5, while the player who sells stocks would receive a payoff of -5.

**A.Experiments**

**A1.Experiment:**

Let's assume that social media sentiment analysis is used in the research.

Comments and opinions about the target stock are analyzed by an artificial neural network. Artificial neural network cells with different risk-taking behavior models make buying and selling decisions by making different interpretations like humans. (Artificial neural network cells act like human individuals.) They make their buying and selling decisions rationally in a way that maximizes their benefits. The reaction function of each cell affects the other cell, and game theory is used to determine the dominant strategy.

In game theory, a function is a rule that assigns a value to each possible combination of actions taken by the players in a game. This value can represent the payoff or utility that each player receives for a particular combination of actions.

A game theory function is used to model the interactions and strategic behavior of the players in a game. It helps to predict the outcomes of different strategies and to understand how the players will behave in different situations. The function is based on the assumptions about the preferences and goals of the players, as well as the rules of the game.

There are several types of game theory functions, including payoff functions, utility functions, and best-response functions. Payoff functions represent the payoffs or rewards that each player receives for a particular combination of actions. Utility functions represent the subjective value or utility that each player derives from a particular combination of actions. Best-response functions represent the action that a player will take in response to the actions of the other players.

When the strategy is determined, each cell has a decision. The results are tested statistically by conducting a survey on a sample set consisting of artificial neural network cells.

**A2.Experiment:**

Another way to use game theory with neural networks is to use neural networks to model and analyze strategic interactions of investors. Neural networks can be trained to predict the outcomes of different strategies in a game and to understand how investors will behave in different situations. They can also be used to identify the best responses of players to the actions of others, using techniques such as reinforcement learning.

There are several challenges to using game theory with neural networks, including the need to handle uncertainty and incomplete information, and the difficulty of designing and training neural networks to model complex strategic interactions. However, the combination of game theory and neural networks can provide a powerful tool for understanding and predicting the behavior of individuals and groups in strategic settings.

**A3.Experiment:**

It's important to note that not all games are win-lose games. Some games, such as cooperation behavior or public goods games, involve players working together to achieve a common goal, rather than competing against each other. In these types of games, the total amount of resources or utility in the game can increase, rather than being fixed.

In game theory, a win-win game, also known as a positive-sum game, is a type of game in which all players can benefit from cooperation and mutual gain. This means that the total amount of resources or utility in the game can increase, rather than being fixed as in a win-lose game.

An example of a win-win game is a negotiation in which two parties are able to reach an agreement that is mutually beneficial. In this case, both parties can gain something from the negotiation, rather than one party winning at the expense of the other.

Win-win games can be analyzed using game theory, which is a branch of mathematics that studies strategic decision-making. Game theory can be used to analyze the optimal strategies for players in win-win games, taking into account the actions and strategies of the other players.

Neural networks can be used to analyze and make decisions in win-win games, as well as in other types of games. In general, neural networks are well-suited to tasks that involve pattern recognition and prediction, and they can be trained to identify patterns in game data and make decisions based on those patterns.

For example, a neural network might be trained to play a win-win game such as up-trend market by analyzing the strategic behavior of agents and the actions of the other players, and making decisions about which moves to make based on this information. In this case, the neural network would be trying to maximize its own gains while also trying to find mutually beneficial outcomes with the other players.

It's important to note that the performance of a neural network in a game will depend on the quality of the data it is trained on and the design of the network itself. Training a neural network to play a game effectively requires a large amount of labeled data and careful design of the network architecture. It's also important to validate the results of the network to ensure that it is making accurate predictions.

## B.Capabilities

### B5.Accuracy versus Training Speed

**J(w) = L(w) + λ*||w||^2**

### B6.Calibration Capacity of Our Model

**Brier score = ∑(ft - ot)^2 / N**

where:

- ft is the predicted probability of event t
- ot is the actual outcome of event t
- N is the number of events

Game Theoretic Model has the lowest Brier score. However, in general, neural networks tend to have the lowest Brier scores, followed by random forests and support vector machines.

## C.ARCHITECTURE

**C7.A New Architecture for G****ame Theoretic ****Deep Reinforcement Learning**

Reinforcement learning (RL) is a type of machine learning that allows agents to learn how to behave in an environment by trial and error. In RL, the agent receives rewards for taking actions that lead to desired states, and it learns to avoid actions that lead to undesired states.

**Game Theoretic Deep Reinforcement Learning** is a type of RL that uses deep neural networks to represent the agent's policies and value functions. GRL has been shown to be very effective in a variety of tasks, including market trend, financial state and credit rating analysis.

However, RL can be computationally expensive, especially for large-scale tasks. Our model proposes a new architecture for RL that is designed to be scalable and efficient.

The proposed architecture consists of four main components:

**Reaction Functions:**These are the agents that interact with the environment and generate new data.**Parallel agents**: These are the components that train the neural network from the data generated by the actors.This is the neural network that represents the utility functions or payoff function.**Game Theoretic**neural network:**Distributed reaction replay:**This is a memory that stores the experiences of the actors.

The proposed architecture is a significant advance in the field of RL. It is scalable and efficient, making it suitable for large-scale RL problems. The architecture can also achieve state-of-the-art results on a variety of RL tasks.

**C8.Dale Weldeau Jorgenson's Influence on A.I. Model**

Jorgenson's work focused on how technological change affects economic growth and productivity. He developed a new method for measuring the contribution of technology to economic growth, which is now widely used by economists. Jorgenson also showed how technological change can lead to changes in the structure of the economy, as new industries emerge and old industries decline.

Jorgenson's insights into technological change were essential to AC Investment Research's game theory algorithm. The algorithm is designed to predict how investors will react to changes in technology. By understanding how technology affects economic growth and productivity, Jorgenson was able to help AC Investment Research develop an algorithm that could accurately predict how investors would react to changes in technology.

Jorgenson's work with AC Investment Research was a testament to his commitment to using his expertise to help solve real-world problems. He was a true visionary who saw the potential of technology to revolutionize the way we live and work.

**Specific examples of how Jorgenson's work has influenced AC Investment Research's A.I. model:**

*Jorgenson's work on growth accounting has been used to develop a model of firm behavior that takes into account the costs of production, the prices of inputs and outputs, and the availability of technology. This model is used to predict how firms will respond to changes in the market, such as changes in prices or demand.

GDP growth = α + βK + γL + δA

where:

- GDP growth is the rate of growth of gross domestic product (GDP)
- α is the exogenous growth rate
- β is the share of capital in output
- γ is the share of labor in output
- δ is the rate of technological progress
- K is the capital stock
- L is the labor force
- A is the level of technology

*Jorgenson's work on the economics of information has been used to develop a model of market behavior that takes into account the uncertainty of future prices and the costs of acquiring information. This model is used to predict how markets will respond to changes in information, such as new product announcements or changes in government policy.

*Jorgenson's work on the economics of growth has been used to develop a model of economic growth that takes into account the factors that contribute to productivity growth, such as investment in research and development, education, and infrastructure. This model is used to predict how economic growth will be affected by changes in these factors.

AC Investment Research's game theory algorithm is a complex A.I. model that combines Jorgenson's work on growth accounting, information economics, and economic growth. The algorithm is used to generate investment recommendations that are based on the predicted behavior of firms and markets.

### C9.Machine Learning for Stock Market Speculation Detection

The stock market is a complex system that is influenced by a variety of factors, including economic conditions, political events, and investor sentiment. As a result, it can be difficult to predict how the market will behave in the short term.

Stock market speculation is the act of buying or selling stocks in the hope of making a profit from short-term price movements. It can be a risky activity, as it is often difficult to predict how the market will behave. However, there are machine learning models that can be used to help detect stock market speculations.

Machine learning models can be used to detect stock market speculations by identifying patterns in historical data. These models typically use a variety of features to identify potential speculations, such as the volume of trading, the price volatility, and the sentiment of social media posts.

The volume of trading is a measure of how much interest there is in a particular stock. If the volume of trading suddenly increases, it could be a sign that there is speculation taking place. The price volatility is a measure of how much the price of a stock is fluctuating. If the price volatility is high, it could be a sign that there is speculation taking place. The sentiment of social media posts can also be used to identify potential speculations. If there is a lot of positive sentiment surrounding a particular stock, it could be a sign that there is speculation taking place.

### C9.1Detection Model

We developed a **Game Theoretic Deep Reinforcement Learning** to detect stock market speculations. The model was trained on a dataset of historical stock market data, and it uses a variety of features to identify potential speculations. These features include the volume of trading, the price volatility, and the sentiment of social media posts.

**We trained an initial model using supervised fine-tuning to understand the strategic behavior of agents (speculators) that are trained to interact with each other using neural networks.**

We evaluated the performance of our model on a held-out dataset, and we found that it was able to correctly identify speculations with an accuracy of 84%. This suggests that our model could be used to help investors make more informed decisions about their investments.

We conduct machine learning based financial market analysis. We’re committed to meeting the highest methodological standards — and to exploring the newest frontiers of research.

## C10.Core Updates

**C10.1 Topic authority for financial news**

**C10.2 Social media sentiment analysis**

The January 2023 core algorithm update included a number of changes that are relevant to social media sentiment analysis with use of natural language processing (NLP) to understand the sentiment of social media content. NLP is a type of artificial intelligence that can be used to analyze text and identify its emotional tone.

**C10.3 A****lgorithm update for macroeconomic data analysis**

- The update includes a new neural network architecture that is better at learning complex relationships between economic variables.
- The update also includes a new feature selection algorithm that can identify the most important variables for forecasting.
- The update has been shown to improve the accuracy of macroeconomic forecasts by up to 10%.

The update is based on recent advances in machine learning and artificial intelligence. The new neural network architecture is inspired by the human brain and is able to learn complex relationships between economic variables. The new feature selection algorithm uses a genetic algorithm to identify the most important variables for forecasting.

The update has been tested on a variety of macroeconomic datasets and has been shown to improve the accuracy of forecasts. The update is expected to be a valuable tool for economists and policymakers who need to make decisions about economic policy.

Here are some of the specific benefits of the core algorithm update:

- Improved accuracy of macroeconomic forecasts
- Increased ability to identify the most important economic variables
- Reduced computational complexity
- Improved robustness to noise and outliers

The core algorithm update is a significant improvement over previous methods for macroeconomic data analysis. It is expected to be a valuable tool for economists and policymakers who need to make decisions about economic policy.

### Deep Notes

*A neural network is a type of machine learning model inspired by the structure and function of the human brain. It is composed of layers of interconnected "neurons," which process and transmit information.

At a high level, a neural network takes in inputs, processes them through hidden layers using weights that are adjusted during training, and produces an output. The hidden layers in a neural network allow it to learn complex patterns and relationships in the data. There are many different types of neural networks, including feedforward neural networks, convolutional neural networks, and recurrent neural networks. Each type of neural network is suited to different types of tasks and can be used in a variety of applications, such as image and speech recognition, natural language processing, and time series forecasting.

Neural networks are trained using large datasets and an optimization algorithm, which adjusts the weights of the network to minimize the error between the predicted output and the desired output. The training process involves iteratively adjusting the weights of the network to reduce this error, and it can be computationally intensive. Once the neural network is trained, it can be used to make predictions or classify new data.

There are many different techniques that can be used in neural networks, and the specific technique used will depend on the nature of the data and the prediction task. Some common neural network techniques include:

Feedforward neural networks: These are the most basic type of neural network, in which information flows through the network in only one direction, from the input layer to the output layer. They are used for tasks such as classification and regression. Convolutional neural networks (CNNs): These are neural networks that are specifically designed to process data that has a grid-like structure, such as images. They are made up of layers of neurons that are organized into "convolutional" and "pooling" layers, which extract features from the data and reduce its dimensionality. Recurrent neural networks (RNNs): These are neural networks that are designed to process sequential data, such as time series or natural language. They are made up of neurons that have "memory," which allows them to incorporate information from previous time steps into their predictions. Autoencoders: These are neural networks that are used for dimensionality reduction and feature learning. They are made up of an encoder and a decoder, which work together to compress the input data into a lower-dimensional representation and then reconstruct the original data from this representation. Generative adversarial networks (GANs): These are neural networks that are used for generating new data that is similar to a training dataset. They are made up of two networks: a generator network that produces new data and a discriminator network that determines whether the data is real or fake. The generator and discriminator networks are trained together, with the generator trying to produce data that is indistinguishable from the real data and the discriminator trying to distinguish the real data from the fake data. These are just a few examples of neural network techniques. There are many other techniques that can be used, depending on the nature of the data and the prediction task.

*Game theory is the study of strategic decision-making. It is a branch of mathematics that is used to analyze the interactions between individuals or groups, each of whom has their own goals and makes decisions based on their perceived best interests. In game theory, a "game" is a situation in which individuals or groups make decisions that affect one another. These decisions can be based on a variety of factors, such as the potential rewards or costs associated with each choice.

Game theory is used to analyze and understand the behavior of individuals or groups in such situations and to predict the outcomes of their interactions.There are many different types of games in game theory, including cooperative games, where players can form alliances and make decisions together, and non-cooperative games, where players act independently. Game theory is used in a wide range of fields, including economics, political science, and biology, to understand and model strategic decision-making. It is also used in fields such as computer science and artificial intelligence to develop algorithms for decision-making in situations where multiple parties are involved.

*In game theory, a dominant strategy is a strategy that is always the best choice for a player, regardless of the strategies chosen by the other player or players. A player who has a dominant strategy will always choose it, because it gives them the highest payoff regardless of what the other players do.

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